Sapphire is a precious gemstone belonging to the corundum family. Corundum is a mineralogical name conferred upon crystallized Aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Pure Corundum which is very rare is perfectly colorless & as such colorless sapphire is equally rare. Small amounts of metallic impurities (especially iron and chrome) in the crystal structure of the corundum gives rise to many color variants in the gemstone.
A blue corundum gemstone is merely called Sapphire.
Gems of other colors are referred to with their color as a prefix. For example, yellow sapphire, pink sapphire and so forth. Two other color varieties have been given distinct names, the red Ruby and the orangish-pink Padparadscha.
These gemstones are all the more appealing mainly because of their attractive colors, abounding history and the metaphysical qualities attributed to them. Legend has it that the tablets bearing the Ten Commandments were made of sapphire. Ancient kings wore sapphires around their necks as a defense against harm, to ward off evil and to acquire divine favors.
Ancients thought that the energy of wisdom is contained inside of this precious gemstone. They believed that the stone’s power enables the wearer to uncover correct solutions to difficult problems.
The sapphire has been a symbol of the heavens, protector of innocence and imparted with loyalty, sincerity, and truth. The ancient Persians believed that the earth’s crust rested upon an enormous sapphire, whose luminosity reflected the sky’s coloration at sunset.
The word sapphire springs from the Latin word sapphirus which merely means blue sapphire metaphysical. Ruby is derived from the Latin word ruber meaning red. The name corundum has been derived from the Sanskrit word kurivinda.
In ancient times, it was thought that all gems grew and ripened with transforming seasons similar to the fruits on a tree. Starting as white, the gems matured and became perfect as the sun shined. Deep red stones were considered to be fully ripened while the paler stones were deemed to have been plucked from the earth too early. The gorgeous red ripe stone (ruby) was called Kuruvinda in the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit. The phrase Corundum springs from this ancient Sanskrit word and encompasses all gems formed of crystallized Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) together with the Ruby.